AB - Air Base

AFB - Air Force Base

AFGWC - Air Force Global Weather Central

AFTN - Airfield Fixed Telecommunications Network

AI - Artificial Intelligence

AIREP - Aircraft (weather) Report

AMOS - Automatic Meteorological Observing Station

AOR - Area of Responsibility

APT - Automatic Picture Transmission

ASDAR - Aircraft Satellite Data Acquisition and Relay

ASDL - Aircraft Satellite Data Link

ATCF - Automated Tropical Cyclone Forecast system

ATCR - Annual Tropical Cyclone Report

ATL - Atlantic (Ocean)

AUST - Australia (region)

AUTODIN - Automated Digital Network

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

AWN/AWS - Automated Weather Network/Automated Weather Station

AWS - Air Weather Service


BAM - NHC beta and advection model for TC track forecasting (Marks, 1989)


CCC - Tropical cyclone Central Cold Cover

CDO - Tropical cyclone Central Dense Overcast

CD-ROM - Compact Disk and Read Only Memory type, or laser disk

CENTPAC - Center Pacific

CI - Current Intensity number of a tropical cyclone

CLIM - Climatological forecast model

CLIPER - Climatology and Persistence model

CNMI - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

CPHC - Central Pacific Hurricane Center, NOAA, at Honolulu

CSC - Cloud System Center

CSUM - Colorado State University statistic tropical cyclone motion Model (Matsumoto, 1984)


DAPP - Data Acquisition and Processing Program

da. or d. - day, 1 mean solar day has 86400 mean solar sec., and 1 sidereal day has 86164.1 mean solar sec.

Det 1 - Detachment 1, Pacific Air Forces (PACAF)

DLM - Deep Layer Mean (meteorological field in the troposphere)

DMSP - Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

DOC - Department of Commerce

DOD - Department of Defense

DOT - Department of Transportation


EASTPAC - Eastern Pacific

ECMWF - European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England

ECT - Enhanced Cloud Top

EIR - Enhanced Infrared

EJTWC - Evaluation (for OPEVAL)

ENSO - El Nino and Southern Oscillation

eof - end of file

EOF - Empirical Orthogonal Function

EWC - Eye Wall Cloud


FBAM - Full troposphere Beta Advection Model

FDL - Forecast Difficulty Level

FNMOC - Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center, Monterey, CA, USA


GHz - Gigahertz (frequency)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GTS - Global Telecommunications System (WMO)


HANDAR - Type of AMOS equipment

HF - High Frequency

hPa - hectoPascal, an atmospheric pressure unit, 1 hPa equals 1 mb.

HPAC - Half Persistence and Climatology

hr(s) - hour(s), a time unit, one hour is 3600 seconds.

HURISK - HUrricane RISK analysis program (US NHC)

HURRAN - HURRicane ANalogue


IND - Indian (Ocean)

IOP - Intensive Observation Period

IR - Infrared Radiation

ITCZ - Inter-tropical Convergence Zone

JMA - Japan Meteorological Agency

JSDF - Japan Self Defense Force

JSM - Japan Spectral Model

JTWC - Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center West/Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Guam


km - kilometer, a length unit, one km is 1000 meters.

kt - knot, a speed unit, one knot is one nautical mile per hour and is 0.514791 m/s.


LEB - Leading Edge Band

LLCC - Lower Level Circulation Center


m - meter, a length unit.

mb - millibar, an atmospheric pressure unit, 1 mb equals 1 hPa and is 0.001359504 kg per square centimeters.

m/s - meters per second, a speed unit.

MBAM - Medium Beta Advection Model

MCC - Meso-scale Convective Complex

McIDAS - Man-computer Interactive Data Acquisition System

MCS - Meso-scale Convective System

METSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MFE - Mean Forecast Error

MIDDAS - Meteorological Imagery, Data Display, and Analysis System

MPI - Maximum Potential Intensity of a tropical cyclone

MSLP - Mean Sea Level Pressure

MSU - Microwave Sounder Unit

MWR - Maximum horizontal Wind Radius

MWS - Maximum horizontal Wind Speed


NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NAVEASTOCEANCEN - Naval Eastern Oceanography Center

NAVWESTOCEANCEN - Naval Western Oceanography Center

NESDIS - National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service

NEXRAD - Next Generation Weather Radar

NH - Northern Hemisphere

NHC - National Hurricane Center, Miami, FL, USA

NHOP - National Hurricane Operations Plan, yearly US NOAA/DOC publication

NIO - North Indian Ocean

NM, nm or nmi - Nautical mile, a distance unit, 1 US nm is 6080.21 ft (1853.248 m), 1 British Admiralty nm is 6080 ft (1853.184 m), 1 International nm is 6076.1 ft (1852 m).

NMC - National Meteorological Center

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOARL - Naval Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Laboratory

NOGAPS - Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System

NORAPS - Navy Operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System

NPMOC - Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center

NPMOC/W - Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center West

NRL - Naval Research Laboratory

NWP - Northwest Pacific (Ocean)

NWP - Numerical weather prediction

NWS - National Weather Service

WSFO - National Weather Service Forecast Office


OBA - Outer Band Areas

OPEVAL - Operations Evaluation (modified)

OTCM - One-Way influence Tropical Cyclone Model (US Navy)


PAC - Pacific (Ocean)

PBL - Planetary Boundary Layer

PC - Personal Computer

PCN - Position Code Number

PER - PERsistence

PIBAL - Pilot Balloon

PIREP - Pilot Report

Pixel - Picture element

PPI - Plan Position Indicator on a radar scope or display


QBO - Quasi-Biennial Oscillation

QC - Quality Control

QG - Quasi-Geostrophic approximation

QLM - Quasi-Lagrangian Model


RADAR - RAdio Direction And Ranging

RAWIN - Rawinsonde (observation)

RHI - Range Height Indicator on a radar scope or display

RJTD - Call sign for Japan Meteor. Agency (JMA)

RMW - Radius of Maximum horizontal Wind speed

ROCI - Radius of Outer Closed Isobar

RSMC - Regional Specialized Meteorological Center


SBAM - Shallow Beta Advection Model

SH - Southern Hemisphere

SI - Shear Index

SLOSH - Sea, Lake and Overland Surges form Hurricanes

SO - Semi-annual Oscillation

SOI - Southern Oscillation Index

SPECTRUM - Special Experiment Concerning Typhoon Recurvature and Unusual Motion

SRP - Selective Reconnaissance Program

SSM/I - Special Sensor Microwave/Imager

SST - Sea Surface Temperature

StnID - Station Identifier

STY - Super Typhoon


TAPS - Tropical Analysis and Prediction System

TAPT - Typhoon Acceleration Prediction Technique

TATEX - Taiwan Area Typhoon Experiment

TBB - Temperature, Black Body for IR emittance

TC - Tropical Cyclone

TCs - plural of TC

TCFA - Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert

TCM-90/92 - Tropical Cyclone Motion experiment (1990/1992, USA)

TCWC - Tropical Cyclone Warning Center

TD - Tropical Depression

TDs - plural of TD

TDA - Typhoon Duty Assistant

TDO - Typhoon Duty Officer

TIROS - Television and Infrared Radiation Observation Satellite

TOVS - TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder

TRMM - Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

TS - Tropical Storm

TUTT - Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough

TY - TYphoon

TYAN - TYphoon ANalogue technique

TYMNET - Time-sharing Network

TYPHOON-90 - 1990 Soviet Union oceanographic expedition


UKMET or UKMO - United Kingdom Meteorological Office

USCINCPAC - U.S. Commander-in-Chief, Pacific

USCINCPACINST - United States Commander in Chief, Pacific Command Instruction

USPACOM - U.S. Pacific Command

UTC or UT - Coordinated Universal Time (former Greenwich mean time, GMT). In the US, the official UTC is kept by the US Naval Observatory and is referred to as UTC. Same as Z or ZULU time.


VAS - VISSR (Visual Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer) Atmospheric Sounder

VDUC - VAS Data Utilization Center

VHRR - Very High Resolution Radiometer

VIS - VISible wavelength

VISSR - Visual Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer


WC - Wall Cloud

WMO - World Meteorological Organization

WRS - Weather Reconnaissance Squadron


yr - year


Z or z time - Zulu time, same as Greenwich mean time (GMT)


***** The end of APPENDIX A *****

Section 6 Appendix B - Some Meteorological Terms and Jargons

Chapter 1